Mexico Border Wall Won’t Stop Cross-border Power Push

Relations between the United States and Mexico are strained at the national level, with President Donald Trump pushing his promised border control wall and demanding a U.S.-favored rewrite of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). But Mexico and the southwestern states have continued working towards an international agenda for electricity, and regional players are talking up a first set of projects due to be completed before Trump’s term is up — projects that put the region on a path to a far more electrically-porous border.

These projects include a trio of new crossborder links between California, Arizona and Mexico to be completed in the next three years. They also include grid studies, revised market rules, and new power lines within Mexico that could rapidly expand flows over all of the U.S.-Mexico interties. “The proposition right now is fairly small because the interconnections are small. But that’s going to change,” says Carl Zichella, director for Western transmission at the Natural Resources Defense Council.

SENER Cross-Border-Interconnections-Mexico-Ministry-of-Energy

Many US-Mexico electric interties operate at relatively low voltage (ie low tensión) and are used infrequently – some only during emergencies. Credit: Mexico Ministry of Energy (SENER)

Transmission experts such as Zichella trace today’s momentum back to energy reforms enshrined in Mexico’s constitution in 2014. Those reforms opened up Mexico’s state-dominated energy sector, providing access to private and foreign investment for energy infrastructure and unleashing rapid development of some of North America’s best renewable energy resources.

In 2016 wind and solar capacity grew 33 percent and 114 percent, respectively, according to Mexico’s power grid and market operator, the Centro Nacional de Control de Énergía. CENACE’s 2017-2031 grid development plan (reviewed here in English) foresees wind and solar meeting two-thirds of an estimated 55,840 megawatts of demand growth through 2031.

A more porous border will ease the challenge of backing up that variable renewable power, which is growing on both sides of the border. Duncan Wood, director of the Mexico Institute at the Wilson Center in Washington, D.C. highlights the opportunity to trade wind power between Mexico’s San Fernando Valley, where wind blows hard during the day, and the West Texas wind power farms that run strongest overnight. “If you can link those you might be able to meet peak demand in both the U.S. and Mexico and avoid having natural gas backup,” says Wood.

Mexico’s power grids presently intersect with their U.S. counterparts at 11 points, but more than half of those links can exchange just 100 megawatts (MW) or less and almost half operate only during grid emergencies [see map below]. There are also a few dedicated lines serving individual power plants, such as one that links a natural gas-fired generator in Mission, Texas to Mexican consumers.

Today’s cross-border construction plans, in contrast, go well beyond spur lines and emergency links. The focus is on robust connections between Mexico and the giant synchronized zone operated by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) which shares alternating current amongst most of the western U.S. and Canada as well as the northernmost portion of Baja California in Mexico.

“Everything has just gone lightning speed. The political will is there,” says Antonio Ortega, who manages governmental affairs and communications for the Imperial Irrigation District (IID), which operates the grid in California’s Imperial Valley. IID and CENACE signed a memorandum in May to study exchanging up to 600 MW, and Ortega says they now have plans mapped out for a pair of interties to be completed in 2019 and 2020.

Ortega says IID has secured a substation site for one link, and is fielding calls from local geothermal developers and solar developers eager to access the Mexican market. “If all 600 MW of renewable energy development is built it would be an economic boon to the region,” he says.

CENACE and the California Independent System Operator (CAISO), which controls the state’s major grids, are looking to get more out of the existing 800-MW link between the San Diego region and Baja California. Roberto Bayetti, a CAISO working closely with Mexico’s power sector, says the link is used sporadically such as when an outage leaves one side or the other short temporarily. Now they are talking about using the link to integrate renewable energy.

Bayetti says 675-MW of renewable generation under development in Baja California could help the San Diego region, which has relied heavily on imports since the region’s San Onofre nuclear power station closed down in 2013. “That would alleviate some of that congestion for us and provide a big opportunity for both sides to reduce carbon,” says Bayetti.

Greater opportunity for both IID and CAISO will open up thanks to internal transmission projects in Mexico. One that is in advanced planning is a high-voltage direct current (HVDC) line that will, for the first time, link northern Baja (and thus California’s grids) to Mexico’s main grid. “There is huge potential. Now we’re not talking about 800 MWs. We’re talking about thousands of MWs that could be transferred,” says Bayetti.

CENACE’s grid plan sees future developments pushing east to Texas, including additional cross-border HVDC links at Ciudad Juarez and Reynosa and a possible East-West HVDC line tracking south of the border from Baja to close to the Gulf of Mexico. Those projects would expand exchanges with the Texas grid – a stand-alone AC zone managed by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT).

Power system experts are optimistic that the U.S.-Mexico agenda will survive the Trump era, since the action is between regional entities. “Things are just marching along underneath any type of political discussion at the higher elevations,” says Paul Roberti, executive director for power and utilities with EY México, a branch of global accountancy and consulting firm Ernst and Young.

As for President Trump’s border wall? Eight prototypes have been erected near the Otay Mesa border crossing between San Diego and Tijuana [see photo at top]. But the wall itself may be stillborn since, as Reuters noted this week, “Congress has so far shown little interest in appropriating the estimated $21.6 billion it would cost to build the wall.”

This post was created for Energywise, IEEE Spectrum’s blog about the future of energy, climate, and the smart grid

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Germany’s Grid: Renewables-Rich and Rock-Solid

Grid graph German Energy TransitionLast Friday Germany’s grid regulator released the 2013 data for grid reliability, and the figures have renewable energy advocates crowing. The latest numbers (released in German) reveal no sign of growing instability despite record levels of renewable energy on the grid — 28.5 percent of the power supplied in the first half of 2014. In fact, Germany’s grid is one of the world’s most reliable. Continue reading

German Parliament OKs Bold HVDC Grid Upgrade

Germany’s bold transmission plan is a go. The Bundesrat, Germany’s senate, has accepted the plan’s enabling legislation forwarded to it by the Bundestag (Germany’s parliament), according to the authoritative German Energy Blog. There is every reason to expect that the plan’s core element — four high-voltage direct current or HVDC transmission lines profiled by Spectrum last month — will get built.

That is good news for Germany’s grid and those of its neighbors. All are straining to manage powerful and variable flows from the wind turbines and solar panels that provided 12 percent of Germany’s power generation last year.

Elements of both the HVDC system design and the legislation should ease construction of the HVDC systems. On the design side, Germany’s transmission system operators have specified advanced converters whose ability to arrest and clear DC line faults will reduce the risk of running overhead lines. This means the HVDC lines can use existing rights-of-way used by AC lines. In fact, they can be hung from the same towers. Read the May 2013 story for extensive discussion of the advanced modular multilevel converters.

The enabling legislation, meanwhile, will simplify line permitting by making a federal court in Leipzig the only forum for legal disputes concerning the projects. Separate legislation passed by the Bundesrat and Bundestag makes  Germany’s federal networks regulator, the Bundesnetzagentur or BNetzA, the sole permitting authority for power lines that cross Germany’s state or national borders. These measures — for better or worse — cut out state-level officials that face greater pressure from local project opponents and may be more sympathetic to their concerns.

Add it all up and Germany is en route to become the first country with HVDC lines playing a critical role at the core of their power grid. It is arguably the first real challenge to AC’s century-plus reign as the top dog in power transmission since DC-advocate Thomas Edison lost the War of Currents. Tesla and Westinghouse may just be rolling over.

This post was created for Energywise, IEEE Spectrum’s blog on green power, cars and climate

Germany Jumpstarts the Supergrid

05OLGermanGridMap

Power Core: Spectrum’s infographic take on Germany’s HVDC transmission plans

New developments in high-voltage DC electronics could herald an epic shift in energy delivery

By Peter Fairley

Stuttgart is one of the last places you’d expect to find in a power pinch. This south German city’s massive automotive plants run 24-7 without a hiccup, efficiency measures have held industrial power consumption flat, and solar panels flash from atop its major buildings. But now all that is at risk. The country’s accelerated shift from nuclear power and fossil fuels to renewable resources, such as wind and solar, has exposed a huge gap in its transmission capacity. If they are to survive, Stuttgart’s factories—and power consumers across southern Germany—will need to import a lot more power from the north, and Germany’s grid is already at capacity.

To fill the gap, Germany is considering an aggressive plan that would push high-voltage direct current, or HVDC, from its conventional position on the periphery of AC grids to a central role. The primary reason is simple: For the first time, HVDC seems cheaper than patching up the AC grid. But Germany’s transmission planners also have another motivation: They want to provide as much performance and reliability as they can to an AC grid that’s already strained by excess wind power. For that, they’re considering implementing power electronics that are capable of doing something that’s never before been done on a commercial line: stop DC current in milliseconds flat.

Germany’s plan could mark the beginning of something much bigger: a “supergrid” of inter connected DC lines capable of transporting electricity on a continental scale, ferrying energy from North Sea turbines, dams in Scandinavia, or Mediterranean solar farms to wherever demand is greatest at that moment…

Published in the May issue of IEEE Spectrum. Read the story at Spectrum.com.

Supergrid Technology Beats Expectations

HVDC breaker Source AlstomAn industrial research consortium that is a who’s-who of the European power industry says development of technologies to produce high-voltage DC (HVDC) supergrids accelerated in 2012 — “surpassing expectations.” The assessment comes in the supergrids technology roadmap updated earlier this month by Friends of the Supergrid, whose members include power equipment suppliers such as Siemens, ABB and Alstom, as well as transmission system operators and renewable energy developers.

Summarizing the conclusions of an expert group within the International Council on Large Electric Systems — better known as CIGRE, its French acroynm — the Friends of the Supergrid says there is now no doubt as to the feasibility of HVDC networks ferrying renewable energy resources from wherever they are in surplus to wherever they are needed: “CIGRE Working Group B4–52 considered this question, specifically whether it was technically and economically feasible to build a DC Grid, and the answer was yes.” Continue reading

Electrical Upgrade Prescribed for Japan’s Crimped Grid

An advisory body for Japan’s powerful Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) has endorsed a tripling of the capacity to pass power between Japan’s otherwise estranged AC power grids: the 50-hertz AC grid that serves Tokyo and northeastern Japan, and the 60-hertz grid that serves western Japan. This frequency divide hascomplicated efforts to keep Japan powered since the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami — a task that keeps getting harder with the inexorable decline in nuclear power generation (at present just one of Japan’s 54 reactors is operating). Continue reading